The best treatment
lies within your DNA!

DNA and disease

Our genes can indicate the appropriate medication.

A patient’s genetic makeup may influence the effectiveness of medication up to 95%. There have been reported cases of people experiencing serious side effects after taking one drug, while they present no side effects with other drugs. Our genetic profile accounts for inter-individual differences in response to the same drug type and dose by patients with the same disease. We are all different and therefore react in different ways to a specific treatment.


We are all unique and thus as patients we may react differently when receiving a specific treatment. A simple pharmacogenetic test can assist the physician to determine which is the most appropriate medication for their patient. That is, with which drug, and at what dosage, will the patient have the best response with the minimum side effects.

Pharmacogenetics combines pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (i.e. the mode of action of drugs in the body) with genetics to study and analyze patients’ response to medications through the correlation of their genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) with the metabolism, toxicity or efficacy a drug.

Several genes directly affect drug metabolism and hence the subsequent therapeutic effect that a drug may have for a particular patient. This is the main reason behind the different efficacy that the same drug at the same dose may display on patients with the same disease.

What does the evidence show

It is now known that patients with the same disease respond differently to the same treatment. A patient’s genetic profile plays a key role in treatment response and can influence the effectiveness of patients’ medication up to 95%.

Scientific article: (Evans and McLeod, 2003)

34% of CNS drugs’ side effects are caused by the patient’s genetic profile and not by drug interactions with other drugs.

Scientific article: (Verbeurgt, Mamiya and Oesterheld,2014)

In the near future, Pharmacogenomics is expected to be a routine procedure in all patients before prescribing antidepressants. This is also the goal for medical practice in psychiatry.

Scientific article: (Nassan et al., 2016)

A study in 501 Greek patients, genotyped for three P450 enzymes, showed that a high proportion of patients are expected to exhibit poor or intermediate metabolism of drugs metabolised by one of the P450 enzymes (39% for CYP2C9, 27% for CYP2C19 and 38% for CYP2D6). This is consistent with other Caucasian populations. Similarly, more than 70% of the patients are expected to exhibit intermediate or enhanced gene-drug interactions to a range of CNS drugs.

Scientific article: (Bothos et al., 2021)


iDNA PGx CNS Test offers Pharmacogenetic analysis of drugs related to Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. IDNA PGx CNS Test aids the physician in choosing the appropriate personalised treatment: the appropriate drug at the right dose for minimum side effects and optimal patient response.

The iDNA PGx CNS is an in vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical device bearing the CE mark and has been notified to the National Medicines Agency (EOF) Medical Devices Register "Gremdis" (Protocol No. 54854 / 23-05-2022).

Genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases –
Polygenic Risk Score


Early detection, prevention and personalized intervention are fundamental for promoting optimal health.

The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases can be assessed through genetic analysis using the Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) method. In addition, taking into consideration lifestyle and phenotype characteristics, the risk can be further assessed dynamically through the Adjusted PRS, thus contributing significantly to prevention.

Polygenic Risk Score (PRS). What is it?

The PRS takes into consideration a plethora of genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess the genetic risk of developing a particular condition. Each genetic polymorphism can exert either a protective or predisposing effect, while by itself it tends to contribute little to the risk of developing a condition. However, cumulatively those small genetic differences can have a significantly larger impact.

Therefore, the PRS is a weighted sum of the number of risk alleles carried by an individual. The risk alleles and their weight are defined by their measured effects, as detected by published Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS).

Adjusted PRS. What is it?

The Adjusted PRS dynamically estimates the combined risk of cardiovascular disease, taking into account lifestyle and phenotype characteristics, through a validated cardiovascular health questionnaire*. More specifically, it examines nutritional habits, physical activity level, smoking, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol and sugar intake to adjust the PRS and estimate risk based on age and current cardiovascular health status. While the PRS is calculated once and is constant throughout life, the Adjusted PRS can be calculated multiple times over a lifetime based on the individual's lifestyle and phenotype.

In conclusion, the Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) and the Adjusted PRS function as a screening tool for assessing the genetic and phenotypic risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and their role lies in prevention.

What does the evidence show

Our knowledge of the genetic factors underlying cardiovascular disease predisposition has improved to the point where polygenic risk profiling can provide personal and clinical utility.

Scientific article: (Torkamani, A. et al. 2018)

Compared to conventional risk factors, people who find out their polygenic risk score are more likely to initiate positive lifestyle changes, demonstrate higher compliance to their treatment, and enjoy better outcomes.

Scientific article: (Kullo, I.J., et al., 2016)

The implementation of PRS can improve the quality of cardiovascular health, reduce the average cost of medical care and prevent future cardiovascular events, with significant benefits in young adults.

Scientific article: (Mujwara, D., et al., 2022)

The Adjusted PRS, through the incorporation of conventional risk factors following PRS calculation, may lead to the prevention of early onset of cardiovascular disease and could translate into significant health benefits.

Scientific article: (Sun, L., et al., 2021)

iDNA Cardio
Health Kit

The iDNA Cardio Health kit is an in vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical device of Genetic Analysis and phenotypic traits for the early prevention of cardiovascular disease based on the Polygenic Risk score (PRS & Adjusted PRS).

The iDNA Cardio Health kit is an in vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical device bearing the CE mark and has been notified to the National Medicines Agency (EOF) Medical Devices Register "Gremdis" (Protocol No. 54882 / 23-05-2022).